Hip & Elbow Dysplasia

Hip Dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is the most common inherited orthopaedic disease in large and giant breed dogs, and occurs in many medium-sized breeds as well. The effect of the condition is to produce in varying degree a shallower cup or socket to the hip joint, and a coincidental flattening of the head of the femur or thigh bone. Even mild conditions result in arthritic and degenerative change, which will develop with time.

Elbow Dysplasia

The term elbow dysplasia refers to several conditions that affect the elbow joint; osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle, fragmented medial coronoid process, ununited anconeal process and incongruent elbow. More than one of these conditions may be present, and this disease often affects both front legs.  This is a polygenic condition, although it is not currently known how many or which genes are responsible. 


Juvenile Laryngeal Paralysis & Polyneuropathy

Juvenile Laryngeal Paralysis & Polyneuropathy (JLPP) is a genetic disease that affects the nerves that supply the muscles of of the larynx, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis throughout the spine and body and has recently been discovered in Rottweilers. 

Polyneuropathy: poly- (many), Neuro- (nerves), -Pathy (a disease).

Juvenile Laryngeal Paralysis & Polyneuropathy (JLPP) is inherited as autosomal recessive trait. The test enables breeders to identify their dogs as Clear (N/N), Carriers (N/JLPP), or Affected (JLPP/JLPP), and this helps breeders to avoid having affected puppies while maintaining the diversity of the gene pool.


Genotype: N / N [ Homozygous normal ]

The dog is noncarrier of the mutant gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will develop Juvenile Laryngeal Paralysis & Polyneuropathy (JLPP). The dog will never pass the mutation to its offspring, and therefore it can be bred to any other dog.


Genotype: N / JLPP [ Heterozygous ]

The dog carries one copy of the mutant gene and one copy of the normal gene.

It is very unlikely that the dog will develop Juvenile Laryngeal Paralysis & Polyneuropathy (JLPP) but since it carries the mutant gene, it can pass it on to its offspring with the probability of 50%.

Carriers should only be bred to clear dogs.

Avoid breeding carrier to carrier because 25% of their offspring is expected to be affected 


The carriers are ONLY A CARRIER of the mutant gene. The don’t have any symptoms of the disease, nor will they at any stage of their lives and are unaffected by it. They live out a normal, healthy life in every sense of the word.  




Genotype: JLPP / JLPP [ Homozygous mutant ]

The dog carries two copies of the mutant gene and therefore it will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring.

The dog is likely to develop Juvenile Laryngeal Paralysis & Polyneuropathy (JLPP) and will pass the mutant gene to its entire offspring



Leukoencephalomyelopathy (LEMP) is a neurological disorder, recessively inherited that affects the white matter of the central nervous system.  Characterized by a generalized, progressive loss of balance with increasing immobility. Signs of LEMP often appear prior to 1 year of age, typically presenting as gait abnormalities including dragging of paws and knuckling.

Explanation of Results:

  • Dogs with N/N genotype will not have leukoencephalomyelopathy and cannot transmit this leukoencephalomyelopathy variant to their offspring.
  • Dogs with N/LEMP genotype will not have leukoencephalomyelopathy, but are carriers. They will transmit this LEMP variant to 50% of their offspring. Matings between two carriers are predicted to produce 25% leukoencephalomyelopathy-affected puppies.
  • Dogs with LEMP/LEMP genotype will have leukoencephalomyelopathy, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder.